Name___________________ __ 8th Grade Final Exam Review 2 Section____HR#
Art Elements/Terms Matching
Value: highlights, shadows (lightness & darkness,) range of grays in an artwork Space: The area around objects
Texture: How surface of an object may feel /appears to feel Blending: mixing two colors together gradually
Line: Path of a point moving through space: examples include vertical, horizontal, diagonal
SHAPES: 2-D objects: Geometric: A two-dimensional, flat figure: examples include circle, triangle, square
Organic or “Free-Form”: two-dimensional irregular figures, curvy –can’t be named
Form: 3-D object that has length, depth and width: examples include a cube, cylinder, sphere, cone, etc..
Commission: When someone hires an artist to create a work of art to their specifications
Medium: The type of material used to create a work of art Ex: graphite, watercolor, crayon, clay…
Primary: (red, yellow, blue) -can be mixed to create all other colors Neutral: include black, white, gray, brown
Warm: These 3 colors: red, orange, yellow Cool: These 3 colors: green, blue, purple
Tint: created when white is added to a color Shade: created when black is added to a color
Complementary: Colors opposite on color wheel ex: Red & Green, Blue & Orange, Yellow & Purple
Analogous: Any Colors next to each other on color wheel ex: red, red-orange, orange…
Contrast: Using opposite colors, textures, sizes to create great areas of difference in art
Realistic: life-like or photo-like Self-portrait: A representation of an artist that is made by the artist.
Abstract: simplified works of art – not true to life & use lines, shapes, colors, textures to create images
Proportion: something in relation to the whole ex: a person is 7.5- 8 heads tall.
Tortillion: rolled paper tool used to blend pencil Kneaded: Flexible eraser that is used to erase values
Watercolor: paint that uses water and pigment Oil Pastel: A drawing material similar to a crayon
Acrylic: paint that is permanent, fast-drying & thick that can be easily blended
Glaze: mixture of pigment, glass & metals used to waterproof/color a clay piece
Clay: sculpting material to create pottery/ceramics; comes from creek-beds (we used Indian red clay)
Slip: thick clay & water mixture -to “glue”2 pieces of clay together. Score- make incisions in clay to connect
Rolling pin: used to flatten the clay into a slab Kiln: a furnace for “baking” or firing clay
Plasticity: the flexibility of clay; how well you can work with the clay without it cracking or breaking (depends
on the size of the clay particles and the amount of water in the clay)
3 stages of clay: 1st-Plastic ware (moldable), 2nd – Leather Hard (bends a little), 3rd- Bone Dry (Brittle)
Potter’s Wheel/ or Throwing Wheel: a machine using a rotating disk to form symmetrical works out of clay
Wedging: working the clay into a smooth mass to rid it of air pockets
Coiling: rolling fingertips to form long, cylindrical pieces of clay Porosity: amount of space between clay particles.
Art Movements / Art Styles: ERA’s and Time Periods & Important Artists of Each Style
Prehistoric: Artworks are the earliest recorded images; many are found on cave walls
Renaissance (1300s-1600s): means rebirth it was a time in history where art, literature, science, philosophy and
Learning were growing in this European city & country and Florence, Italy. The art generally was:
1) Influenced by Classical Greek & Roman works, 2) realistic & religious 3) Used symmetry & proportion
Major Artists of the Renaissance: *remember your FOUR Ninja Turtles
1) Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Famous for “Mona Lisa”, “The Last Supper”, various inventions
2) Michelangelo (1475-1564) Famous for The Sistine Chapel ceiling, “La Pieta” & David
3) Raphael (1483-1520) Famous for “The School of Athens” (perspective painting w/ philosophers)
4) Donatello (1386-1466) Famous for sculptures of various religious figures, (2 David sculptures)
Invention of Camera: 1838- Daguerreotype. Photography Civil War (1861)- 1st to be photographed in US.
Impressionism: began in 1860s France; painted w/ small brushstrokes & various colors to suggest light
Claude Monet (1840-1926): French, famous series of “Water Lilies” and his bridge paintings.
Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890):Dutch, Heavy brushstrokes, bold color & mood – “Starry Night”
Pointillism: Post impressionist technique using only painted dots & “viewers eyes do the mixing”
Georges Seurat (1859- 1891) French. Known for Pointillism & painted “Sunday Afternoon on the Island of ………….La Grande Jatte””
Cubism: began in the early 1900s in uses very abstract, geometric shapes & multiple points of view
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973): Spanish artist famous for creating works like: “The Three Musicians”
Surrealism: began in the early 1920s; unexpected images to create surprising and dream-like art.
Salvador Dali (1904-1989): Spanish artist who is famous for works such as “Persistence of Memory”
M. C. Escher: (1898-1972) Holland artist: surrealism, tessellations, infinity, cycle of Life, Metamorphosis
Frida Kahlo: Mexican artist- created symbolic and expressive self-portraits; married to Diego Rivera
Abstract Expressionism: a movement in the early 1940s (after WWII) New York City expressed themselves
Wassily Kandinksy Russian (1866-1944): inspired by music, especially the work of Richard Wagner
Jackson Pollock American NYC (1912-1956): did Action painting: splattered paint onto large canvases
Pop Art: began 1950s in Britain; uses images from popular culture: advertisements, comics & mass culture Andy Warhol (1928-1987): American, Pittsburgh, PA famous for his images of everyday objects like ………….his “Campbell’s Soup Can” and famous people such as Marilyn Monroe Photo-realism: uses a photographic image to gather information to create a painting that looks like a photograph; uses a grid system to break the face into smaller areas and enlarge onto a larger canvas or surface …………Chuck Close American artist -created large-scale photo-realistic portraits; he used the grid system to enlarge photographs onto a larger surface, like a canvas.
Importance of Art: Written Response
Be able to list and identify/draw different facial proportions
Understand different reasons as to why artists create self-portrait.
Know about how different self-portrait artists (style, contributions to art, personal lives, etc.)
Be able to list reasons as to why art is important: -Art has affected the way we view the world today in many ways. Art can be important in life even if you don’t plan on being an artist.
Some Examples: Stress reliever, helps to express the way your feel, way to communicate & explain ideas. Helps to build relationships when you learn how to give/receive critical response without getting upset/taking it personally. Helps to utilize different parts of your mind in a way that enriches you developmentally. People involved in the visual arts/ music/performing arts statistically do better in test taking and overall well -being. Colleges often look for people who have diverse interests and experiences as it shows a sense of well roundedness.